Factors Affecting Variance and Bias of Non-Nuclear Density Gauges for Porous European Mixes and Dense-Graded Friction Courses

Filippo Giammaria Praticò, Antonino Moro, Rachele Ammendola


It is well known that the implementation of contractor quality control/agency quality assurance (QC/QA) can support quality improvements in hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements, both for porous European mixes (PEMs) and dense-graded friction courses (DGFCs). On the other hand, many reasons and reports highlight the importance of proper in situ air voids content, due to major influence on service properties (rate of rutting, fatigue life, structural strength, permeability, ravelling, etc.). Another relevant standpoint is that in-lab determinations of density, though often reliable and accurate, are low-speed tests. All these facts outline the potential role of field measurement of density through non-nuclear density gauges. In the light of the above facts, the main object of the paper was confined as the study of factors affecting variance and bias of non-nuclear density gauges both for PEMs and DGFCs. Bias, variance and parameters’ dependence resulted to be appreciably affected by mix typology and characteristics. In particular, when related to mix type, monovariate regressions with low-speed methods resulted able to provide a useful tool in QC/QA procedures and road asset management. Further practical applications have been outlined.


quality assurance; quality control; non-nuclear density gauge; porous European mix (PEM); dense-graded friction course (DGFC)

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DOI: 10.3846/1822-427X.2009.4.99-107


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