Analysis and Evaluation of the Effect of Studded Tyres on Road Pavement and Environment (III)

Alfredas Laurinavičius, Dainius Miškinis, Rasa Vaiškūnaitė, Algimantas Laurinavičius


In the economic evaluation of studded tyres their benefit and damage to the public was analyzed. Such aspects as the price of studded tyres, their effect on braking distance, fuel costs, road pavement, pavement marking, initiation of particulate mater and the increase in noise emisions were compared and analyzed. Based on the inquiry of tyre sellers and executed calculations, it was determined that in Lithuania, in winter season about 15% of passenger cars use winter tyres with studs, therefore due to the reduced number of road accidents (reduced number of people killed and injured) the public receives the benefit of 1.81 mln EUR. However, due to the more expensive tyres, increased fuel consumption, damages to horizontal pavement marking, negative impact of particulate matter on human health the public incur considerably higher losses amounting even to 38.43–39.07 mln EUR.


studded tyres; economic evaluation; fuel costs; road pavement marking; human health; particulate mater (PM); noise emissions

Full Text:



Baltrėnas, P.; Morkūnienė, J.; Vaitiekūnas, P. 2008. Mathematical Simulation of Solid Particle Dispersion in the Air of Vilnius City, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 16(1): 15–22. doi:10.3846/1648-6897.2008.16.15-22

Baltrėnas, P.; Butkus, D.; Nainys, V.; Grubliauskas, R.; Gudaitytė, J. 2007. Efficiency Evaluation of a Noise Barrier, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 15(3): 125–134.

Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Gudmundsson, A.; Dahl, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Bohgard, M.; Lindom, J.; Ljungman, A. 2008. Properties and Toxicological Effects of Particles from the Interaction between Tyres, Road Pavement and Winter Traction Material, Science of Total Environment 393(2–3): 226–240. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.12.030

Elvik, R; Vaa, T. 2004. The Handbook of Road Safety Measures. 1st edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 1090 p. ISBN 0080440916

Hääl, M.-L.; Sürje, P.; Rõuk, H. 2008. Traffic as a Source of Pollution, Estonian Journal of Engineering 14(1): 65–82. doi:10.3176/eng.2008.1.05

Kapski, D.; Leonovich, I.; Ratkevičiūtė, K.; Miškinis, D. 2008. Implementation of Experimental Research in Road Traffic: Тheory and Practice, The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering 3(2): 101–108. doi:10.3846/1822-427X.2008.3.101-108

Ketzel, M.; Omstedt, G.; Johansson, C.; Düring, I.; Pohjola, M.; Oettl, D.; Gidhagen, L.; Wahlin, P.; Lohmeyer, A.; Haakana, M.; Berkowicz, R. 2007. Estimation and Validation of PM2.5/PM10 Exhaust and Non-Exhaust Emission Factors for Practical Street Pollution Modeling, Atmospheric Environment 41(40): 9370–9385. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.09.005

Kropp, W.; Kihlman, T.; Forssén, J.; Ivarsson, L. 2007. Reduction Potential of Road Traffi c Noise. A Pilot Study. Chalmers University of Technology. 59 p.

Kupiainen, K. 2007. Road dust from pavement wear and traction sanding. Monograph of the Boreal research. Finnish Environment Institute, Finland, Helsinki. 52 p.

Lama, A.; Smirnovs, J.; Naudžuns, J. 2007. Effectiveness of the 2000–2006 National Road Traffic Safety Programme Implementation in Latvia, The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering 2(1): 13–20.

Laurinavičius, A.; Skerys, K.; Jasiūnienė, V.; Pakalnis, A.; Starevičius, M. 2009. Analysis and Evaluation of the Effect of Studded Tyres on Road Pavement and Environment (I), The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering 4(3): 115–122. doi:10.3846/1822-427X.2009.4.115-122

Norman, M.; Johansson, C. 2006. Studies of Some Measures to Reduce Road Dust Emissions from Paved Roads in Scandinavia, Atmospheric Environment 40 (32): 6154–6164. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.05.022

Peeters, B.; Blokland, G. 2007. The Noise Emission Model For European Road Traffic. Improved Methods for the Assessment of the Generic Impact of Noise in the Environment. IMAGINE project no. 503549. M+P – consulting engineers. 66 p.

Radziszewski, P. 2007. Modified Asphalt Mixtures Resistance to Permanent Deformation, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 13(4): 307–315.

Räisänen, M.; Kupiainen, K.; Tervahattu, H. 2005. The Effect of Mineralogy, Texture and Mechanical Properties of Anti-Skid and Asphalt Aggregates on Urban Dust, Stages II and lll, Bull Eng Geol Environ 64(3): 247–256. doi:10.1007/s10064-004-0267-0

Schmit, T.; Schlender, D. 2003. Untersuchung zum saisonalen Reifenwechsel unter Berucksichtigung technischer und klimatischer Aspekte [Investigation of Seasonal Tire Change with Consideration of Technical and Climatic Aspects] Bergische universitat Wurppertal Sicherheitstechnik. 109 p.

Scheibe, R. R. 2002. An Overview of Studded and Studless Tire Traction and Safety. Research Report No. WA-RD 551.1 Washington: Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC), University of Washington. 80 p.

Tampère, Ch.; Stada, J.; Immers, B. 2009. Calculation of Welfare Effects of Road Pricing on a Large Scale Road Network, Technological and Economic Development of Economy 15(1): 102–121. doi:10.3846/1392-8619.2009.15.102-121

Vaiškūnaitė, R.; Miškinis, D.; Laurinavičius, A. 2009. Analysis and Evaluation of the Effect of Studded Tyres on Road Pavement and Environment (II), The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering 4(4): 203–211. doi:10.3846/1822-427X.2009.4.203-211

Vallius, M. 2005. Characteristics and Sources of Fine Particulate Matter in Urban Air. Academic dissertation. National Public Health Institute. 81 p.

Ziari, H.; Ameri, M.; Khabiri, M. M. 2007. Resilient Behavior of Hot Mixed and Crack Sealed Asphalt Concrete Under Repeated Loading, Technological and Economic Development of Economy 13(1): 56–60.

Zubeck, H.; Aleshire, L.; Porhola, S.; Larson, E. 2004. Socio-Economic Effects of Studded Tire Use in Alaska. Alaska: University of Alaska Anchorage. 159 p.

DOI: 10.3846/bjrbe.2010.24


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2010 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press Technika