Analysis of Modern Three-Span Suspension Bridges With Stiff in Bending Cables

Algirdas Juozapaitis, Romualdas Kliukas, Giedrė Sandovič, Ona Lukoševičienė, Tomas Merkevičius


Suspension bridges are one of the most effective bridge structures used for large spans to overlap. Recently, not only the single-span bridges but also multi-span suspension bridges have been used. The main issue of design and analysis shall consider the excessive deformability induced by the interaction of flexible and kinematic displacement. Stabilization of suspension bridges could be ensured by various means. The most effective and up-to-date measure applied to reduce displacements of suspension bridges is the application of the so-called “rigid” cables with appropriate bending stiffness instead of conventional flexible cables. These retaining elements demonstrate high corrosion stability; their cross-sections are designed using conventional structural steel sections, factory and fabricated connections are simple and firm. The main advanced feature of these cables is that these elements along with the suspended stiffening girder stabilize the initial shape of the bridge effectively. It shall be noted that analysis methods applied for these innovative three-span suspension bridges with “rigid” cables are still under development. There are only few individual publications describing the behaviour of a single-span suspension bridge. The article describes the modern suspension three-span bridge and provides analytic expressions of internal forces and displacements calculated considering the erection sequence.


suspension bridge; steel bridge; rigid cable; symmetric loadings; non-linear analysis

Full Text:



Caballero, A.; Pose, M. 2010. Local Bending Stresses in Stay Cables with an Elastic Guide, Structural Engineering International 20(3): 254–259.

Chen, Z. W.; Xu, Y. L.; Xia, Y.; Li, Q.; Wong, K. Y. 2011. Fatigue Analysis of Long-Span Suspension Bridges under Multiple Loading: Case Study, Engineering Structures 33(12): 3246–3256.

Cobo del Arco, D.; Aparicio, A. C. 2001. Preliminary Static Analysis of Suspension Bridges, Engineering Structures 23(9): 1096–1103.

Clemente, P.; Nicolosi, G.; Raithel, A. 2000. Preliminary Design of Very Long-Span Suspension Bridges, Engineering Structures 22(12): 1699–1706.

Fürst, A.; Marti, P.; Ganz, H. 2001. Bending of Stay Cables, Structural Engineering International 11(1): 42‒46(5).

Gimsing, N. J.; Georgakis, Ch. T. 2012. Cable Supported Bridges: Concept and Design. 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons, 590 p. ISBN 0470666285.

Gorokhov, Y.; Mushchanov, V.; Pryadko, I. 2013. Reliability Provision of Rod Shells of Steady Roofs over Stadium Stands at Stage of Design Work, in Proc. of the 11th International Conference on Modern Building Materials, Structures and Techniques. Procedia Engineering 57: 353–363.

Göpper, K.; Kratz, A.; Pfoser, P. 2005. Entwurf und Konstruktion einer S-förmigen Fußgängerbrücke in Bochum Stahlbau 74(20): 126–133 (in German).

Grigorjeva, T.; Juozapaitis, A.; Kamaitis, Z. 2010. Static Analysis and Simplified Design of Suspension Bridges Having Various Rigidity of Cables, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 16(3): 363–371.

Hao Wang; Ai-qun Li; Jian Li. 2002. Progressive Finite Element Model Calibration of a Long-Span Suspension Bridge Based on Ambient Vibration and Static Measurements, Engineering Structures 32(9): 2546–2556.

Horokhov, Y.; Mushchanov, V.; Kasimov, V. 2006. New Approaches to Analysis and Design of a Stationary Covering above the Stadium Tribunes, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 12(4): 293–302.

Jennings, A. 1987. Deflection Theory Analysis of Different Cable Profiles for Suspension Bridges, Engineering Structures 9(2): 84–94.

Juozapaitis, A.; Idnurm, S.; Kaklauskas, G.; Idnurm, J.; Gribniak, V. 2010. Non-Linear Analysis of Suspension Bridges with Flexible and Rigid Cables, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 16(1): 149–154.

Juozapaitis, A.; Vainiunas, P.; Kaklauskas, G. 2006. A New Steel Structural System of a Suspension Pedestrian Bridge, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 62(12): 1257–1263.

Kala, Z. 2012. Geometrically Non-Linear Finite Element Reliability Analysis of Steel Plane Frames with Initial Imperfections, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 18(1): 81‒90.

Katchurin, V.; Bragin, A.; Erunov, B. 1971. Design of Suspension and Cable-Stayed Bridges. Transport, 280 p.

Kiisa, M.; Idnurm, J.; Idnurm, S. 2012. Discrete Analysis of Elastic Cables, The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering 7(2): 98–103.

Kim, S. E.; Thai, H.-T. 2010. Nonlinear Inelastic Dynamic Analysis of Suspension Bridges, Engineering Structures 32(12): 3845–3856.

Kulbach, V. 2007. Cable Structures. Design and Analysis. Tallin, Estonian Academy Publisher. 224 p.

Lewis, W. J. 2012. A Mathematical Model for Assessment of Material Requirements for Cable Supported Bridges: Implications for Conceptual Design, Engineering Structures 42: 266–277.

Moskalev, N. S. 1981. Suspension Structures. Moskva: Stroyizdat. 335 p.

Nakamura, Sh.; Suzumura, K. 2009. Hydrogen Embrittlement and Corrosion Fatigue of Corroded Bridge Wires, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 65(2): 269–277.

Nevaril, A.; Kytyr, J. 2001. FEM Analysis of Bridge-Type Cable System, in Proc. of IABSE Conference Cable Supported. Bridges – Challenging Technical Limits. June 12–14, 2001, Seoul, Korea. IABSE Reports 84: 154–155.

Yanaka, Y.; Kitagawa, M. 2002. Maintenance of Steel Bridges on Honshu-Shikoku Crossing, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 58(1): 131–150.

Prato, C. A.; Ceballos, M. A. 2003. Dynamic Bending Stresses Near the Ends of Parallel Bundle Stay Cables, Structural Engineering International 13(1): 64–68.

Daniūnas, A.; Urbonas, K. 2013. Influence of the Column Web Panel Behaviour on the Characteristics of a Beam-to-Column Joint, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 19(2): 318–324.

Ryall, M.; Parke, G.; Harding, J. 2000. The Manual of Bridges Engineering. London: Tomas Telford Ltd. 1012 p. ISBN 0727727745.

Sandovič, G.; Juozapaitis, A.; Kliukas, R. 2011. Simplified Engineering Method of Suspension Two-Span Pedestrian Steel Bridges with Flexible and Rigid Cables under Action of Asymmetrical Loads, The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering 6(4): 267–273.

Song, H.; Wang, X. 2010. Zhoushan Xihoumen Bridge with the World Record Span Length of Steel Box Girder, China, Structural Engineering International 20(3): 312–316.

Strasky, J. 2005. Stress-Ribbon and Supported Cable Pedestrian Bridges. London: Thomas Telford Ltd. 232 p. ISBN 072773282X.

Troyano, L. F. 2003. Bridge Engineering: a Global Perspective. London: Tomas Telford Ltd. 775 p. ISBN 0727732153.

Wollman, G. P. 2001. Preliminary Analysis of Suspension Bridges, Journal of Bridge Engineering 6(4): 227–233.

Wyatt, T. A. 2004. Effect of Localised Loading on Suspension. Bridges, Bridge Engineering 157(BE2): 55–63.

Xu, J.; Chen, W. 2013. Behavior of Wires in Parallel Wire Stayed Cable under General Corrosion Effects, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 85: 40–47.

DOI: 10.3846/bjrbe.2013.26


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2013 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press Technika