Evaluation of Stiffness to Predict Rutting Resistance of Hot-Mix Asphalt: a Canadian Case Study

Md. Safiuddin, Susan Louise Tighe, Ludomir Uzarowski


This paper investigates the relationship between the stiffness and rutting resistance of hot-mix asphalt. Ten different types of hot-mix asphalt were examined. The Superpave mix design method was utilized to produce nine mixes; the remaining mix was designed using the Marshall method. The asphalt mixes were tested for stiffness and rutting resistance under the Centre for Pavement and Transportation Technology research program at the University of Waterloo. The stiffness was determined by the laboratory resilient and dynamic moduli tests. The dynamic modulus test was conducted at six different loading frequencies and five different temperatures. The rutting test was executed by the Hamburg Wheel Rut Tester and the French Laboratory Rutting Tester to obtain rutting depth. The regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships of resilient and dynamic moduli with rutting depth. The results of the regression analysis revealed that resilient modulus did not correlate well with rutting depth. In contrast, dynamic modulus showed strong correlation with rutting depth for a number of loading frequencies and temperatures. The strong relationship was observed at the higher temperatures of +46.1 oC and +54.4 oC. Moreover, the relationship between dynamic modulus and rutting depth was better for lower loading cycles/wheel passes applied in the rutting test. It was also noticed that dynamic modulus exhibited a better relationship with rutting depth obtained from the French Laboratory Rutting Tester. The overall findings indicate that the dynamic moduli obtained at 0.1–1.0 Hz and +46.1–(+54.4) °C are useful to predict the rutting resistance of hot-mix asphalt.


dynamic modulus; hot-mix asphalt; regression analysis; resilient modulus; rutting resistance; stiffness

Full Text:



Ahmad, J.; Rahman, M. Y. A.; Hainin, M. R. 2011. Rutting Evaluation of Dense Graded Hot Mix Asphalt Mixture, International Journal of Engineering and Technology 11(5): 56–60.

Al-Khateeb, G. G.; Khedaywi, T. S.; Al-Suleiman, T. I.; Najib, A. M. 2013. Laboratory Study for Comparing Rutting Performance of Limestone and Basalt Superpave Asphalt Mixtures, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 25(1): 21–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000519

Al-Suhaibani, A.; Al-Mudaiheem, J.; Al-Fozan, F. 1992. Effect of Filler Type and Content on Properties of Asphalt Concrete Mixes, in Effects of Aggregates and Mineral Fillers on Asphalt Mixture Performance. ASTM STP 1147, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Philadelphia, USA, 107–130.

Bhattacharjee, S.; Mallick, R. B.; Daniel, J. S. 2008. Effect of Loading and Temperature on Dynamic Modulus of Hot Mix Asphalt Tested under MMLS3, Airfield and Highway Pavements, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Virginia, USA. 267–278.

Coleri, E.; Harvey, J. T.; Yang, K.; Boone, J. M. 2013. Micromechanical Investigation of Open-Graded Asphalt Friction Courses’ Rutting Mechanisms, Construction and Building Materials 44: 25–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.03.027

Čygas, D.; Mučinis, D.; Sivilevičius, H.; Abukauskas, N. 2011. Dependence of the Recycled Asphalt Mixture Physical and Mechanical Properties on the Grade and Amount of Rejuvenating Bitumen, The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering 6(2): 124–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.3846/bjrbe.2011.17

Blazejowski, K.; Dolzycki, B. 2014. Relationships between Asphalt Mix Rutting Resistance and MSCR Test Results, in Design, Analysis, and Asphalt Material Characterization for Road and Airfield Pavements, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Virginia, USA. 202–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/9780784478462.025

Erlingsson, S. 2012. Rutting Development in a Flexible Pavement Structure, Road Materials and Pavement Design 13(2): 218–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2012.682383

Goh, S. W.; You, Z.; Williams, R. C.; Li, X. 2011. Preliminary Dynamic Modulus Criteria of HMA for Field Rutting of Asphalt Pavements: Michigan’s Experience, Journal of Transportation Engineering 137(1): 37–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)TE.1943-5436.0000191

Hu, S.; Zhou, F.; Scullion, T. 2011. Development, Calibration, and Validation of a New M-E Rutting Model for HMA Overlay Design and Analysis, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 23(2): 89–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000130

Khan, K. M.; Kamal, M. A. 2012. Rutting Based Evaluation of Asphalt Mixes, Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 11: 60–65.

Khedr, S. A.; Breakah, T. M. 2011. Rutting Parameters of Asphalt Concrete for Different Asphalt Structures, International Journal of Pavement Engineering 12(1): 11–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10298430903578960

Loulizi, A.; Flintsch, G. W.; Al-Qadi, I. L.; Mokarem, D. 2006. Comparing Resilient Modulus and Dynamic Modulus of Hot-Mix Asphalt as Material Properties for Flexible Pavement Design, Transportation Research Record 1970: 161–170. http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/1970-19

Neubauer, O.; Partl, M. N. 2004. Impact of Binder Content on Selected Properties of Stone Mastic Asphalt, in Proc. of the 3rd Eurasphalt and Eurobitume Congress, vol. 2. May 12–14, 2004, Vienna, Austria. 1614–1621.

Pellinen, T. K.; Witczak, M. W. 2002. Use of Stiffness of Hot-Mix Asphalt as a Simple Performance Test, Transportation Research Record 1789: 80‒90. http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/1789-09

Roy, N.; Veeraragavan, A.; Krishna, J. M. 2013. Influence of Air Voids of Hot Mix Asphalt on Rutting within the Framework of Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 104(2): 99–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.11.102

Sivilevičius, H.; Podvezko, V.; Vakrinienė, S. 2011. The Use of Constrained and Unconstrained Optimization Models in Gradation Design of Hot Mix Asphalt Mixture, Construction and Building Materials 25(1): 115–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.06.050

Swamy, A. K.; Mitchell, L. F.; Hall, S. J.; Daniel, J. S. 2011. Impact of RAP on the Volumetric, Stiffness, Strength, and Low-Temperature Properties of HMA, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 23(11): 1490–1497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000245

Tighe, S. L.; Jeffray, A.; Perraton, D. 2007. Low Temperature Evaluation of Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS) into Base Course Asphalt Mixes. Research Report (Prepared for Miller Paving Limited and Ontario Centres of Excellence for Materials and Manufacturing). University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Tran, N. H.; Hall, K. C. 2005. Evaluating the Predictive Equation in Determining Dynamic Modulus of Typical Asphalt Mixtures Used in Arkansas, Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists 74: 1–17.

Uzarowski, L.; Tighe, S. L.; Rothenburg, L. 2008. Developing Rutting Criteria to Improve Safety Using the SPT, Hamburg Rut Tester and Modelling for Canadian Asphalt Mixes, in Proc. of ISAP Conference 2008. August 18–20, 2008, Zurich, Switzerland.

Uzarowski, L.; Maher, M.; Prilesky, H.; Tighe, S. L.; Rothenburg, L. 2006. The Use of Dynamic Modulus and Creep Tests in the Development of Rutting Resistant Criteria for Asphalt Mixes in Canada – Stage 1, in Proc. of the 10th International Conference on Asphalt Pavements. August 12–17, 2006, Quebec, Canada.

Uzarowski, L. 2006. The Development of Asphalt Mix Creep Parameters and Finite Element Modeling of Rutting. PhD thesis. University of Waterloo, Canada.

Uzarowski, L.; Paradis, M.; Lum, P. 2004. Accelerated Performance Testing of Canadian Asphalt Mixes Using Three Different Wheel Rut Testers, in Proc. of the 2004 Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

Yu, H.; Shen, S. 2012. An Investigation of Dynamic Modulus and Flow Number Properties of Asphalt Mixtures in Washington State. Final Report No. TNW2012-02, Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC), Washington State University, Washington DC, USA.

DOI: 10.3846/bjrbe.2014.35


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2014 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press Technika