Road Landscape as a Product: Does it Satisfy Consumers’ Aesthetic Needs?

Irina Matijošaitienė, Inga Stankevičė


The contemporary market laws and consumer society impose that road users are regarded to as consumers, and road landscape – as a product. In this context, consumers’ willingness to use the product is equivalent to road users’ willingness to drive on the road. Consumers’ fastidiousness induces to develop road landscape in a way which ensures satisfaction of drivers’ versatile needs, including the aesthetic ones. However, development of desirable-to-drive road landscape remains one of the challenges of land management. Hence, based on the analysis of aesthetic needs of road users, the paper proposes a framework for creation of desirable-to-drive road landscape. The research rests on photofixation, Kansei engineering, regression, correlation and descriptive analyses. The landscape of the main Lithuanian roads was investigated. The results show that the willingness to drive on a road depends on the level of tune of all the elements comprising the roadscape, the amount of positive impression left by the roadscape, roadscape’s pleasurability, level of sophistication, and skittishness. The guidelines for the development of desirable to drive road landscape are proposed, and the map of distribution of roadscape in Lithuania, according to the willingness to drive, is drawn.


landscape management; road landscape; aesthetic; product; consumer; Kansei engineering; multiple linear regression; correlation analysis; descriptive statistics

Full Text:



Augeri, M. G.; Colombrita, R.; Greco, S.; Sapienza, P. 2014. Dominance-Based Rough Set Approach to Network Bridge Management, The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering 9(1): 31‒42.

Bastian, O.; Grunewald, K.; Syrbe, R.-U.; Walz, U.; Wende, W. 2014. Landscape Services: the Concept and Its Practical Relevance, Landscape Ecology 29(9): 1463‒1479.

Chang, H. H.; Wang, H.-W. 2011. The Moderating Effect of Customer Perceived Value on Online Shopping Behaviour, Online Information Review 35(3): 333‒359.

Cullen, G. 1995. The Concise Townscape. 3rd edition. Oxford: Routledge, Architectural Press. 200 p. ISBN 978-0-7506-2018-5.

Dallos, M. 2013. Seeing Landscape: Geography, Autobiography, and Metaphor, Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes: an International Quarterly 34(2): 146‒150.

Daub, C. H.; Ergenzinger, R. 2005. Enabling Sustainable Management through a New Multi-Disciplinary Concept of Consumer Satisfaction, European Journal of Marketing 39(9/10): 998‒1012.

Drottenborg, H. 2002. Are Beautiful Traffic Environments Safer than Ugly Traffic Environments. PhD Thesis 2002. Lund: LTH ‒ Technology and Society. 109 p.

Flint, D. J.; Larsson, E.; Gammelgaard, B. 2008. Exploring Processes for Customer Value Insights, Supply Chain Learning and Innovation: an International Study, Journal of Business Logistics 29(1): 257‒281.

Flint, D. J.; Woodruff, R. B.; Fisher, G. S. 2002. Exploring the Phenomenon of Consumers’ Desired Value Change in a Business-to-Business Context, Journal of Marketing 66(4): 102‒117.

Grönroos, Ch.; Helle, P. 2010. Adopting a Service Logic in Manufacturing: Conceptual Foundation and Metrics for Mutual Value Creation, Journal of Service Management 21(5): 564–590.

Hartono, M.; Chuan, T. K. 2011. How The Kano Model Contributes to Kansei Engineering in Services, Ergonomics 54(11): 987‒1004.

Holbrook, M. B. 2005. Consumer Value and Autoethnography: Subjective Personal Introspection and the Meanings of a Photograph Collection, Journal of Business Research 58(1): 45‒61.

Kasemets, K. 2014. Visual Meaning-Making in an Underprivileged Neighbourhood Landscape: Milieus and Atmospheres, Visual Communication 13(4): 459‒470.

Khalifa, A. S. 2004. Customer Value: a Review of Recent Literature and an Integrative Configuration, Management Decision 42(5): 645‒666.

Liu, J.; Opdam, P. 2014. Valuing Ecosystem Services in Community-Based Landscape Planning: Introducing a Wellbeing-Based Approach, Landscape Ecology 29(8): 1347‒1360.

Llinares, C.; Page, A. F. 2008. Differential Semantics as a Kansei Engineering Tool for Analysing the Emotional Impressions which Determine the Choice of Neighbourhood: the Case of Valencia, Spain, Landscape and Urban Planning 87(4): 247‒257.

Lynch, K. 1981. A Theory of Good City Form. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 514 p. ISBN 9780262120852.

Martelo Landroguez, S.; Barroso Castro, C.; Cepeda-Carrión, G. 2011. Creating Dynamic Capabilities to Increase Customer Value, Management Decision 49(7): 1141–1159.

Mascarenhas, O. A.; Kesavan, R.; Bernacchi, M. 2004. Customer Value-Chain Involvement for Co-Crating Customer Delight, Journal of Consumer Marketing 21(7): 486‒496.

Mele, C. 2007. The Synergic Relationship between TQM and Marketing in Creating Customer Value, Managing Service

Quality 17(3): 240‒258.

O’Sullivan, D.; McCallig, J. 2012. Customer Satisfaction, Earnings and Firm Value, European Journal of Marketing 46(6): 827‒843.

Rintamäki, T.; Kuusela, H.; Mitronen, L. 2007. Identifying Competitive Customer Value Propositions in Retailing, Managing Service Quality 17(6): 621‒634.

Ryu, K.; Han, H.; Jang, S. 2010. Relationships among Hedonic and Utilitarian Values, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions in the Fast-Casual Restaurant Industry, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 22(3): 416‒432.

Santala, M.; Parvinen, P. 2007. From Strategic Fit to Customer Fit, Management Decision 45(3): 582–601.

Stankevičė, I. 2009. Consumer Capital as a Contributor to Prioritizing Dimensions of Consumer Perceived Value. Master thesis 2009. Kaunas: Kaunas University of Technology. 69 p.

Strandvik, T.; Holmlund, M.; Edvardsson, B. 2012. Customer Needing: a Challenge for the Seller Offering, Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing 27(2): 132–141.

DOI: 10.3846/bjrbe.2014.36


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2014 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press Technika