Frost Durability of Steel Fiber Self-Compacting Concrete for Pavements

Jerzy Wawrzeńczyk, Agnieszka Molendowska, Adam Kłak



 The paper presents the results from the research on self-compacting concrete with different steel fibre type addition. The reference self-compacting concrete mix with water/binder = 0.33 was prepared, then modified with steel fibres in the amounts of 0–60 kg/m3 and air entrained with polymer microspheres (40 μm diameter). The major objective of the research was to determine the effect of steel fibre and air content on the self-compacting concrete mix properties and hardened concrete frost durability. The tests also included internal cracking and scaling resistance evaluation for concrete specimens subjected to cyclic freeze-thaw process − two beams were frozen in air and two beams were partially submerged in water and then frozen. The scaling resistance was tested using the slab method on the specimens with sawn surface and on the specimens with natural finished surface. Non-air entrained steel fibre-reinforced concretes, despite their high strength class (C55/67–C60/75) and medium absorption (4.34–5.11%), showed unsatisfactory resistance to internal cracking and scaling tests. The beams partially submerged in water failed after 100 freeze-thaw cycles, which confirms a significant influence of water uptake from moist environment during freeze-thaw cycles and the acceleration of the damage process. Test results indicate that air entrainment with polymer microspheres is a very effective method and allows obtaining very good air pore structure parameters and frost resistance results. The specimens with top − finished surface exhibited less damage in the scaling resistance tests in relation to the specimens with sawn surface.


air-entrainment; freeze-thaw durability; microspheres; self-compacting concrete (SCC); steel fibres.

Full Text:



Erlin, B.; Mather, B. 2005. A New Process by Which Cyclic Freezing Can Damage Concrete – the Erlin/Mather Effect a Concept, Cement and Concrete Research 35(7): 1407–1411.

Fagerlund, G. 1990. Air-Pore Instability and its Effects on the Concrete Properties, Nordic Concrete Research 9: 34−52.

Groth, P.; Nemegger, D. 1999. The Use of Steel Fibres in Self- Compacting Concrete, in Proc. of the 1st International RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete, 13–14 September 1999, Stockholm, Sweden, 497–507.

Grünewald, S.; Walvaren, J. C. 2001. Parameter-Study on the Influence of Steel Fiber and Coarse Aggregate Content on the Fresh Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research 31(12): 793–1798.

Gustafsson, J. 1999. Experience from Full Scale Production of Steel Fibre Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete, in Proc. of the 1st International RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete, 13–14 September 1999, Stockholm, Sweden, 743–754.

Ozyildirim, C.; Sprinkel, M. M. 1982. Durability of Concrete Containing Hollow Plastic Microspheres, ACI Journal Proceedings 79(4): 307–312.

Panesar, D. K.; Chidiac, S. E. 2007. Multi-Variable Statistical Analysis for Scaling Resistance of Concrete Containing GGBFS, Cement and Concrete Composites 29(1): 39–48.

Philleo, R. E. 1987. Frost Susceptibility of High-Strength Concrete, ACI Special Publication 100: 819–842.

Ponikiewski, T.; Cygan, G. 2011. Some Properties of Self Compacting Concretes Reinforced with Steel Fibres, Cement Wapno Beton 16(4): 203–209.

Rostam, S. 1996. High Performance Concrete Cover – Why It Is Need, and How to Achieve It in Practice, Construction and Building Materials 10(5): 407–421.

Skripkiūnas, G.; Nagrockienė, D.; Girskas, G.; Janavičius, E. 2012. Resistance of Modified Hardened Cement Paste to Frost and De-Icing Salts, The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering 7(4): 269–276.

Szwabowski, J.; Łaźniewska-Piekarczyk, B. 2008. The Suggested Values of Parameters of Porosity Structure of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC), Cement Wapno Beton 13(3): 155–165.

Wawrzeńczyk, J.; Molendowska, A. 2011. Air Void Structure in Relation to the Frost Resistance of Air-Entrained Concrete with Microspheres, Cement Wapno Beton 11(5): 278–287.

Ye, G.; Liu, X.; De Schutter, G.; Poppe, A.; Taerwe, L. 2007. Influence of Limestone Powder Used as Filler in SCC on Hydration and Microstructure of Cement Pastes, Cement and Concrete Composites 29(2): 94–102.

Zhu, W.; Bartos, P. J. 2003. Permeation Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research 33(6): 921– 926.

DOI: 10.3846/bjrbe.2016.04


1. The durability of shotcrete in cold region tunnel: A review
Zhao Hu, Hao Ding, Jinxing Lai, Hao Wang, Xiuling Wang, Siyue He
Construction and Building Materials  vol: 185  first page: 670  year: 2018  
doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.07.088


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press Technika