Assessment Model of Levels for Winter Road Maintenance

Tomas Ratkevičius, Alfredas Laurinavičius


The limited funding for the road industry leads to economizing in the planning of road network maintenance, to identifying the appropriate priorities of the activities with the greatest benefit for the society. The level of maintenance is the direct assessment of the road operation and maintenance service provided to the road users; it directly affects the road maintenance and for road users costs the better is road maintenance, the road users incur the fewer expenses and vice versa. Insufficient road maintenance in the winter time causes not only the danger of traffic accidents but also worsens the driving conditions, increases the fuel consumption, vehicle depreciation, transportation becomes more expensive. Many results of studies showed that the current choice of maintenance levels in the winter time taking into account only the road category and traffic volume does not ensure the indicators of the most advanced world countries and road functional purpose. The principle of the minimal expenses for the society should be the main criterion in identifying the optimal levels of winter road maintenance. The experience of Lithuania and foreign countries helped in creating the model of assessment of winter maintenance levels for Lithuanian roads of national significance, which can be applied in the other foreign countries as well. This model could be an effective tool for the selection of the optimal maintenance levels, which would economically substantiate the winter road maintenance strategy, that best corresponds to the needs of the society.


cost-benefit analysis; level of maintenance; slipperiness reducing materials; winter road maintenance.

Full Text:



Andrey, J.; Leahy, M.; Mills, B.; Suggett, J. 2001. Weather-Related Road Accident Risks in Mid–Sized Canadian Cities, in Proc. of the 12th Canadian multidisciplinary road safety conference. 10–13 June, 2001, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.

Berglund, C. M. 2008. The Winter Model: The Benefits and Costs of Winter Road Maintenance. VTI – Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden, 28 p.

Bulevičius, M.; Čygas, D.; Laurinavičius, A.; Mučinis, D.; Vaitkus, A. 2014. Materials and Technologies for Winter Road Maintenance in Lithuania, in the XIVth International Winter Road Congress. 4–7 February, Andorra. France: World Road Association (PIARC): 1–15. Available from Internet:

Chen, S. S.; Lamanna, M. F.; Tabler, R. D.; Kaminski, D. F. 2009. Computer-Aided Design of Passive Snow Control Measures. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2107, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Washington, D.C.: 111–120.

Cuelho, E.; Harwood, J. 2012. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Anti–Icing Strategies. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2272, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Washington, D.C.: 144–151.

Eisenberg, D.; Warner, K. E. 2005. Effects of snowfalls on motor vehicle collisions, injuries, and fatalities. American Journal of Public Health 95 (1), 120–124.

Flintsch, G. W.; Izeppi, E. de L; McGhee, K. K.; Roa, J. A. 2009. Evaluation of International Friction Index Coefficients for Various Devices. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2094, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Washington, D.C.: 136–143.

Fu, L.; Perchanok, M. S.; Moreno, L. F. M.; Shah, Q. A. 2006. Effects of winter weather and maintenance treatments on highway safety. Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting. Paper No. 06–0728.

Hanbali, R. M.; D. A. Kuemmel. 1993. Traffic Volume Reductions Due to Winter Storm Conditions. In Transportation Research Record 1387, Third International Symposium on Snow Removal and Ice Control Technology, National Research Council, Washington, D. C.: 159–164. Available from Internet: http://

Hanbali, R.M.; Kuemmel, D. A. 1992. Traffic accident analysis of ice control operation. Transportation Research Board. Available from Internet: tions/IceControl/ice-control- 1992.pdf

Hermans, E.; Brijis, T.; Stiers, T.; Offermans, C. 2006. The impact of weather conditions on road safety investigated on an hourly basis. TRB Annual Meeting 2006. Paper No. 06-1120. Available from Internet: view/default.asp?record=776722

Knapp, K. K.; Smithson, D. L.; Khattak, A. J. 2002. The mobility and safety impacts of winter storm events in a freeway environment, in midcontinent transportation symposium 2000 proceedings. Iowa, USA. Available from Internet:

Laurinavičius, A., Čygas, D., Vaitkus, A., Ratkevičius, T., Bulevičius, M., Mučinis, D., Baltrušaitis, A. 2016. Research of snow melting materials performance efficiency for road winter maintenance. Transport, 31(3), 322–332.

Malmivuo, M. 2011. Friction Meter Comparison Study 2011. Abstract. Original report Kitkamittareiden vertailututkimus 2011 published by the Finnish Transport Agency in the report series 48–2011. Available from Internet: http://www.sir-

Nakatasuji, T.; Hayashi, I.; Kawamura, A.; Shirakawa, T. 2005. Inverse Estimation of Friction Coefficients of Winter Road Surfaces. New Considerations of Lateral Movements and Angular Movements. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board1911, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Washington, D. C.: 149–159.

Nixon, W. A.; Qiu, L. 2008. Effects of Adverse Weather on Traffic Crashes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. TRB 87th Annual Meeting 2008. Paper No. 08–232.

Norrman, J.; Eriksson, M.; Lindqvist, S. 2000. Relationships pare Road Slipperiness, Traffic Accident Risk and Winter Road Maintenance Activity, Climate Research 15: 185–193.

Qin, X.; Noyce, D. A.; Martin, Z.; Khan, G. 2007. Road weather safety audit program development and initial implementation. TRB 2007 Annual Meeting. Paper No. 07 – 2684. Available from Internet:

Rezaei, A.; Masad, E. 2013. Experimental–based Model for Predicting the Skid Resistance of Asphalt Pavement. International Journal of Pavement Engineering Vol. 14, Nos. 1–2. January–February 2013. p. 24–35.

Ružinskas, A.; Bulevičius, M.; Sivilevičius, H. 2016. Laboratory investigation and efficiency of deicing materials used in road maintenance, Transport 31(2): 147–155.

Shankar, V.; Mannering, F.; Barfield, W. 1995. Effect of roadway geometrics and environmental factors on rural freeway accident frequencies. Accident Analysis and Prevention 27 (3), 371–389.

Velavan, K. 2006. Developing tools and data model for managing and analyzing traffic accident. MSc thesis report. University of Texas at Dallas, School of Economic, Political and Policy Sciences for Master of Science in Geographic Information Sciences. Available from Internet:https://pdfs.semanticscholar. org/577b/fb647ad21e314daaea3b1b9bfa0f451a34c0.pdf

Wallman, C. G. 2004. The Winter Model: A Winter Maintenance Management System. Sixth International Symposium on Snow Removal and Ice Control Technology, Spokane, Washington Proceedings: 83–94. Available from Internet: http://www. wid=-1589

Wang, J.; Alexander, L.; Rajamani, R. 2004. GPS Based RealTime Tire–Road Friction Coefficient Identification. Project Report, No. MN/RC – 2005–04. Avaible from Internet: handle/11299/1136/200504.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Xu, H.; Tan, Y. 2012. Development and testing of heat- and mass- coupled model of snow melting for hydronically heated pavement, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2282: 14–21.

DOI: 10.3846/bjrbe.2017.15


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press Technika