Prediction of Mechanical Alterations in Multi-Layer Sbs-Modified Hot Mix Asphalt and Soil-Foundation Structure

Ahmet Sertac Karakas, Faruk Ortes


Traffic and environmental conditions are key parameters in road applications. Empirical studies and numerical analyses, which are widely adopted in material design studies, are used for analysing superstructures of the roads, and developmental approaches are improved for future designs as well. In flexible pavements, polymer and fibre-reinforced additives are frequently used to make them durable against deteriorations and to extend their service life. One of the additives that is mostly preferred is the Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS) material thanks to a variety of their physical and chemical properties. Physical and mechanical properties of the natural ground layer and its interactions with the superstructure are crucial parameters in terms of performance under various environmental and traffic conditions. In this study, the use of SBS-modified Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) was examined as a flexible superstructure, and the mechanical properties of the granular base and the natural ground layer were tested. The stress and deformation occurring within layers in various periods were also considered. The presented study is a suitable tool for the use of additives that significantly contribute to the mechanical properties and service life of the roads. In this study, it is concluded that the use of additives significantly improves the mechanical response and service life of the roads.


hot mix asphalt; SBS polymer; multi-layer asphalt; soil structure; finite element method; regression analysis

Full Text:



Ahmedzade P., Kuloglu N., Ahmedzade M., Karakas A. S., Kuloglu M., & Yilmaz M. (2007). Examination of the Rheological Properties of Pure and SBS Modified Bitumen Classical and Superpave Method. Firat University Scientific Research Projects Unit, Project No. 2003K120440.

Akbulut, H., & Aslantas, K. (2005). Finite element analysis of stress distribution on bituminous pavement and failure mechanism. Materials & Design, 26(4), 383–387.

Ameri, M., Mansourian, M., Khavas, H., Aliha, M. R. M., & Ayatollahi, M. R. (2011). Cracked asphalt pavement under traffic loading – A 3D finite element analysis, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 78(8), 1817–1826.

Boussinesq, J. (1885). Application des Potentials an L’etude de L’equilbre et du Movement des Solids Elastiques. Gauthier-Villars, Paris.

Burland, J. B., Broms, B. B., & De Mello, V. F. B. (1977). Behavior of foundations and structures, In Proceedings of the 9th international conference on soil mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Tokyo, pp. 495–538.

Chen, J. S., & Huang, C. C. (2007). Fundamental characterization of SBS-modified asphalt mixed with sulfur. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 103(5), 2817–2825.

Deng, W., Zhang, X., Chen, B., & Yan, S. (2004). Nonlinear FEM analysis of the influence of asphalt pavement under a non-homogenous settlement of roadbed. China Journal of Highway and Transport, 1, 16–19.

Hinislioglu, S., Agar, E. (2004). Use of waste high-density polyethylene as bitumen modifier in asphalt concrete mix. Materials Letters, 58(3–4), 267–271.

Karakas, A. S. & Ortes, F. (2017). Comparative assessment of the mechanical properties of asphalt layers under the traffic and environmental conditions. Construction and Building Materials, 131, 278–290.

Karakaş, A. S., Sayin, B., & Kuloglu, N. (2014). The changes in the mechanical properties of neat and SBS-modified HMA pavements due to traffic loads and environmental effects over a one-year period. Construction and Building Materials, 71, 406–415.

Karakas, A. S., Kuloglu, N., Kok, B. V., & Yilmaz, M. (2015). The evaluation of the field performance of the neat and SBS modified hot mixture asphalt. Construction and Building Materials, 98, 678–684.

Keskin, M. S., Laman, M., & Baran, T. (2008). Experimental determination and numerical analysis of vertical stresses under square footings resting on sand. Digest, 2008, 1263–1279.

Kim, H., Wagoner, M. P., & Buttlar, W. G. (2009). Numerical fracture analysis on the specimen size dependency of asphalt concrete using a cohesive softening model. Construction and Building Materials, 23(5), 2112–2120.

Li, X. J., & Marasteanu, M. O. (2010). The fracture process zone in asphalt mixture at low temperature. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 77(7), 1175–1190.

Li, Q., Yang, H., Ma, X., & Ni, F. (1935). Evaluation of microstructure and damage evolution for asphalt pavements in an advanced repeated load permanent deformation test using X-ray computed tomography. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 2016, 1–24.

McLean, Va. (2010). Long-Term Pavement Performance Program Highlights: Accomplishments and Benefits 1989–2009. FHWA-HRT-10-071. Federal Highway Administration, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center.

Newmark, N. M. (1935). Simplified computation of vertical pressures in elastic foundations, University of Illinois Engineering. Experiment Station, Circular No. 24, Illinois.

Novak, M., Birgisson, B., & Roque R. (2003). Near-surface stress states in flexible pavements using measured radial tire contact stresses and ADINA. Computers & Structures, 81(8–11), 859–870.

Norouzi, A., Kim, D., & Kim, Y. R. (2016). Numerical evaluation of pavement design parameters for the fatigue cracking and rutting performance of asphalt pavements. Materials and Structures, 49(9), 3619–3634.

Prowell, B., Hurley, G., & Crews, E. (2007). Field Performance of Warm-Mix Asphalt at National Center for Asphalt Technology Test Track. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1998, 96–102.

Sengoz B., & Isikyar, G. (2008). Evaluation of the properties and microstructure of SBS and EVA polymer modified bitumen. Construction and Building Materials, 22(9), 1897–1905.

Sheng, L., Huang, Y., & Liu, Z. (2016). Experimental evaluation of asphalt material for interlayer in rigid–flexible composite pavement. Construction and Building Materials, 102, 699–705.

Siddharthan, R., Yao, J., & Sebaaly, P. E. (1998). Pavement strain from moving dynamic 3D load distribution. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 124(6), 557–566.

Tarefder, R. A., & Zaman, A. (2016). Carbon nanotube modified asphalt binders for sustainable roadways. In Stanton N., Landry S., Di Bucchianico G., Vallicelli A. (eds) Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 484. Springer, Cham. (pp. 623–633).

Ullidtz, P. (1987). Pavement Analysis. Developments in Civil Engineering, 19, 318.

Westergaard, H. M. (1938). A Problem of elasticity suggested by a problem in soil mechanics: soft material reinforced by numerous strong horizontal sheets. In Contributions to the mechanics of solids, S. Timoshenko 60th Anniversary Volume, New York - Mac Millan.

Wu, S., Xue, Y., Ye, Q., & Chen, Y. (2007). Utilization of steel slag as aggregates for stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixtures. Building and Environment, 42(7), 2580–2585.

Xiao, F., Amirkhanian, SN., Shen, J., & Putman, B. (2009). Influences of crumb rubber size and type on reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) mixtures. Construction and Building Materials, 23(2), 1028–1034.

Yang, Y., Sun, H., Zhan, G., & Liu, F. (2015). The Analysis on the Influence of Porosity on the Pavement Performance of Asphalt Mixture under Heavy Traffic. Journal of Liaoning Provincial College of Communications, 4, 002.

Yao, H., & You, Z. (2016). Nanoclay modified asphalt. In Innovative Developments of Advanced Multifunctional Nanocomposites in Civil and Structure Engineering (pp. 183–216).

Zafir, Z., Siddharthan, R., & Sebaaly, P. (1994). Dynamic pavement‐strain histories from moving traffic load. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 120(5), 821–842.

Zeng, F., & Huang, X. (2004). Asphalt pavement stress under overloading. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 3, 003.

DOI: 10.7250/bjrbe.2021-16.536


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Ahmet Sertac Karakas, Faruk Ortes

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.