Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deficiencies Under Service Loads

Yavuz Yardim, Erion Periku, Mehmet Alpaslan Köroglu


Conditions of existing bridges are often problematic issues and expensive to resolve for many countries. In order to anticipate and reduce these problems, the combination of various general and local factors causing degradation needs to be identified in the early stage. The identification of these problems reveals the need for local research and detailed inspection for bridges. Reinforced Concrete Bridges in Albania were built at different standards in different periods and were exposed to rapidly increasing and changing traffic loads in the last three decades. This situation made the structural assessment of the bridges inevitable in the local conditions. Although the existing condition of these bridges had not been clearly defined, after democratization and joining the European Council (the 1990s), new bridges were rapidly built and existing bridges were strengthened with different methods. In this context, the structural condition of existing reinforced concrete bridges in Albania was examined in this study. The condition of Albanian bridges was presented in this paper based on visual inspection of 104 bridges covering the total length of 7271.6 m along 263 km road from different parts of the country, concentrating on local causes of deteriorations. The main causes of the defects are figured out in the study as traffic load, natural force, aging, lack of maintenance, and last but not least construction and design deficiencies. The study concludes that the general physical condition of the bridges is poor, so the services provided by the bridges are potentially at risk. The results obtained at the end of this study may be valid for countries with similar features, e.g., other Balkan countries.


assessment; bridges, defects; inspection

Full Text:



Dinçer, S., Aydın, E., & Gencer, H. (2014). A real-time instrumentation approach for structural health monitoring of bridges [PowerPoint slides]. https://www.¬dges-and-tunnels

Gega, M., & Bozo, L. (2017). Analysis of bridge foundation damage in Albania. Procedia engineering, 189, 275–282.

Hawk, H., & Small, E. P. (1998). The BRIDGIT bridge management system. Structural engineering international, 8(4), 309–314.

Jaafar, M., Yardim, Y., Thanoon, W. A., & Noorzaie, J. (2003). Development of a knowledge-based system for condition assessment of bridges. Indian concrete journal, 77(12), 1484–1490.

Janas, L., Miller, B., & Kaszyński, A. (2018). Computational algorithms supporting the bridge management system. The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering, 13(4), 357–373.

Kamaitis, Z. (2006). Deterioration of bridge deck roadway members. Part I: Site investigations. The Baltic Journal of Road Bridge Engineering, 1(4), 177–184. 427X.2006.4.177%E2%80%93184

Koteš, P., & Vičan, J. (2006). Experiences with Reliability-based Evaluation of Existing Concrete Bridges in Slovakia. In The Second International fib Congress 2006, Proceedings of the abstracts, Proceedings of the papers on CD, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006.

Köroğlu, M. A. (2016). Mechanical characterization of recycled tires in concrete. Selcuk University Journal of Engineering, Science Technology, 4(4), 330–336.

Köroğlu, M. A. (2018). Behavior of composite self-compacting concrete (SCC) reinforced with steel wires from waste tires. Journal of Construction, 17(3), 484–498.

Köroğlu, M. A., & Ashour, A. (2019). Mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete with recycled bead wires. Journal of Construction, 18(3), 501–512.

Köroğlu, M. A., & Özdöner, N. (2016). Behavioural study of steel fiber and polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete. Key Engineering Materials, 708, 59–63.

Limongelli, M. P., Chatzi, E., & Anzlin, A. (2018). Condition assessment of roadway bridges: From performance parameters to performance goals. The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering, 13(4), 345–356.

Melchers, R. E., & Chaves, I. A. (2020). Durability of reinforced concrete bridges in marine environments. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 16(1), 169–180.

Paparisto, A., Lazo, P., Halimi, E., Duka, S., Hamzaraj, E., Laknori, O., & Pepa, B. (2010). Assessment of water quality of Shkumbini river, Albania. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 22(8), 6164–6172. Albania

Sein, S., Matos, J. C., & Idnurm, J. (2017). Life cycle analysis of reinforced concrete bridges in Baltic countries. 29th International Baltic Road Conference at Tallinn, August 2017.

Thompson, P. D., Small, E. P., Johnson, M., & Marshall, A. R. (1998). The Pontis bridge management system. Structural engineering international, 8(4), 303–308.

Valigura, J., Liel, A. B., & Sideris, P. (2021). Life-cycle cost assessment of conventional and hybrid sliding-rocking bridges in seismic areas. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 17(5), 702–719.

Wan, B., Foley, C. M., & Komp, J. (2010). Concrete cracking in new bridge decks and overlays (Report No. WHRP 10-05). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Marquette University. research/WisDOT-WHRP-project-0092-09-06-final-report.pdf

Welch, A. (2010). Development of a bridge asset management system for the Albanian national roads network.

DOI: 10.7250/bjrbe.2022-17.556


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Yavuz Yardim, Erion Periku, Mehmet Alpaslan Köroglu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.