Dynamic Factor of Bridges Subjected to Linear Induction Motor Train Load

Xu-hui He, Andrew Scanlon, Peng Li


The linear induction motor (LIM) has been used in urban rail transit systems in China and other parts of the world. However, specialized specifications for design or assessment of bridges in urban rail transit systems have not yet been established. The electromagnetic force of LIM complicates vehicle-bridge interaction. In this paper, a typical bridge on the Guangzhou metro line 4 is evaluated both experimentally and theoretically to determine vehicle-bridge interaction characteristics. The LIM vehicle is represented by a model of secondary suspension with 6 degrees of freedom, and the bridge is modeled using standard beam elements. The coupled motion equation is formulated using the principle of total potential energy with stationary value in an elastic system and solved by using the Newmark-β method. Field dynamical tests were also performed on the bridge. The calculated and experimental vertical displacement time-histories for LIM trains crossing the bridge were obtained and dynamic factors were developed. A formula for determination of the dynamic factor, which can provide an engineering basis for design and evaluation of bridges in urban rail transit system, is proposed.


linear induction motor (LIM); elevated bridge; train; interaction; dynamic factor (DF); electromagnetic force

Full Text:



Broquet, C.; Bailey, S. F.; Farad, M.; Bruhwiler, E. 2004. Dynamic Behavior of Deck Slabs of Concrete Road Bridges, Journal of Bridge Engineering 9(2): 137–146. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)1084-0702(2004)9:2(137)

Butkevičius, J. 2007. Development of Passenger Transportation by Railroad from Lithuania to European States, Transport 22(2): 83–89. doi:10.1080/16484142.2007.9638102

Fatemi, M. J.; Green, M. F.; Campbell, T. I.; Moucessian, A. 1996. Dynamic Analysis of Resilient Crosstie Track for Transit System, Journal of Transportation Engineering 122(2): 173–180. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-947X (1996)122:2(173)

Gu, X. H.; Xia, H.; Guo, W. W. 2008. Dynamic Analysis of LIM Train-Bridge System, Journal of Vibration Engineering 21(6): 608–613.

Hobbs, A. E. W.; Pearce, T. G. 1974. Lateral Dynamics of the Linear Induction Motor Test Vehicle, ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurements and Control 96(2): 147–157. doi:10.1115/1.3426786

Isobe, E.; Cho, J.Morihisa, I.Sekizawa, T.Tanaka, R. 1999. Linear Metro Transport Systems for the 21st Century, Hitachi Review 48(3): 144–148.

Liebelt, A. 1986. Skytrain Operations and Maintenance Radio System, in WESCANEX ‘86 Conference Record (Cat. No. 86CH2333-3). June10–12, 1986, Vancouver, BC, Canada. New York: IEEE, 13–16.

Matsumaru, H. 1999. Contributes to Railway Systems for the 21st Century, Hitachi Review 48(3): 124–125.

Lou, P. 2006. Comparison of Two Types of Deflection Functions for Analysing the Responses of the Rail and the Bridge under Static or Moving Vehicles, in Proc. of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part K: Journal of Multi-Body Dynamics 220(2): 105–123. doi:10.1243/14644193JMBD24

Nonaka, S.;Higuchi, T. 1988.Design of Single-Sided Linear Induction Motors for Urban Transit, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 37(3): 167–173. doi:10.1109 /25.16543

Pang, S. H.;Gao, W. 2006.The Linear Motor Vehicle in Guangzhou Metro Line 4, Journal of Urban Rapid Rail Transit 19(1): 77–78.

Parker, J. Dawson, G. 1979.LIM Propulsion System Development for Transit, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics MAG-15(6): 1443–1443. doi:10.1109/ TMAG.1979.1060443

Reis, M.; Pala, Y.; Karadere, G. 2008. Dynamic Analysis of a Bridge Supported with Many Vertical Supports under Moving Load, The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering 3(1): 14–20. doi:10.3846/1822-427X.2008.3.14-20

Reis, M.; Pala, Y. 2009. Dynamic Response of a Slightly Curved Bridges under Moving Mass Loads, The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering 4(3): 143–148. doi:10.3846/1822-427X.2009.4.143-148.

Teraoka, S. 1998. Adoption of Linear Motor Propulsion System for Subway, in Proc. of the 15th International Conference on MAGLEV, 140–146.

Wei, Q. C.Wang, Y. J.Zhang, Y.Deng, Y. S. 2007.A Dynamic Simulation Model of Linear Metro System with ADMAS/Rail, in Proc. of the 2007 IEEE, International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation. August 5–8, 2007, Harbin, China. Piscataway: IEEE, 2037–2042.

Wu, Y. S.; Yang, Y. B. 2003. Steady-State Response and Riding Comfort of Trains Moving Over a Series of Simply Supported Bridges, Engineering Structures 25(2): 251–265. doi:10.1016/S0141-0296(02)00147-5

Xia, H.; Guo, W. W.; Xia, C. Y.; Pi, L.-Y.; Bradford, M. A. 2010. Dynamic Interaction Analysis of a LIM Train and Elevated Bridge System, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 23(12): 3257–3270. doi:10.1007/s12206-009-1015-y

Yoshida, K.; Takami, H.; Yoshida, T.; Suganuma, M.; Oshima, K. 2005. Lateral Running Control for Air-Suspended Hybrid Linear Motor Vehicle, in European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications. September 11–14, 2005, Dresden, Germany. doi:10.1109/EPE.2005.219408

Zhang, Q. L.; Vrouwenvelder, A.; Wardenier, J. 2001. Dynamic Amplification Factors and EUDL of Bridges under Random Traffic Flows, Engineering Structures 23(6): 663–672. doi:10.1016/S0141-0296(00)00077-8

DOI: 10.3846/bjrbe.2011.24


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2011 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press Technika