The Impact of Agriculture Drainage Reconstruction on Ground Water Recession Close to the Subgrade

Vilimantas Vaičiukynas, Saulius Vaikasas, Henrikas Sivilevičius, Audrius Grinys


Good drainage is the most important design consideration for a road, both to miniaturize road maintenance costs and maximize the time the road is operational. The lack of good drainage lead to the structural damages and costly repairs. Many of roads are built in intensively drained agricultural land. The effective way to drain subgrades is reconstruction of existing agricultural drainage. The impact of cross-subsurface drainage system on water level fluctuation was measured using Plane geofiltration mathematical model, one of 3D geofiltration modelling programs. The hydraulic permeability characteristics were determined in field of Pikeliai, close to local road in Kėdainiai district, Lithuania. This object is composed of clay and loamy soils. Subsurface cross drains trenches spacing of 20 m, 30 m and 40 m were simulated. The hydraulic permeability of cross drain trenches and lateral trenches modelled was from 0.006 m/a day to 6 m/a day. The simulation of cross drains trenches showed that the most effective distance between them are 20 m. The highest water depression occurs when the permeability of cross drain trenches and lateral trenches is ~ 6 m/day, at the distance of 20 m. The water recession is 20 cm lower compared to the drainage systems without cross drains trenches. By installing cross drains trenches every 30 m, water recession is 10 cm lower when the trench permeability is about 6 m/day. When increasing the distance between the cross drains up to 40 m their influence disappears.


road subsurface drainage; hydraulic permeability; additional cross drains; impact on water table depression; ground water table

Full Text:



Apakharel, S. K.; Han, J.; Manandhar, C.; Yang, X.; Leshchinsky, D.; Halahmi, L.; Parsons, R. L. 2011. Accelerated Pavement Testing of Geocell-Reinforced Unpaved Roads Oven Weak Subgrade, Transportation Research Record 2204: 67–75.

Cooke, R. A.; Badiger, A. M; Garcia, A. M. 2001. Drainage Equations for Random and Irregular Tile Drainage Systems, Agricultural Water Management 48(3): 207–224.

Culley, J. L. B.; Coote, D. R. 1984. Water Table Regime in an Eastern Ontario Soil with and Without Pipe Drains, Canadian Agricultural Engineering 26(1): 7–14.

Dan, H.; Xin, P.; Li, L.; Li, L.; Lockington, D. 2012. Boussinesq Equation-Based Model for Flow in the Drainage Layer of Highway with Capillarity Correction, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 138(4): 336–348.

De Grandpre, I.; Fortier, D.; Stephani, E. 2012. Degradation of Permafrost Beneath a Road Embankment Enhanced by Heat Advected in Groundwater, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 49(8): 953–962.

Doanh, T.; Hoang, M. T.; Roux, J. N.; Dequeker, C. 2013. Stick-Slip Behaviour of Model Granular Materials in Drained Triaxial Compression, Granular Matter 15(1): 1–23.

Donald, W. 2000. Local Road Assessment and Improvement Drainage Manual. Transportation Information Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison. 20 p.

Griffiths, P. J.; Hird, A. B.; Tomlinson, P. 2000. Rural Road Drainage for Environmental Protection. Project Report PER/192/00, Old Wokingham Road, Crowthorne, Berkshire. 40 p. Available from Internet:

Finn, G.; Buckey, D.; Kelly, K.; McDaid, J.; Laoghaire, D.; Mul- laney, D; Power, D. 2004. Guidelines for Road Drainage. Dept of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. 62 p.

He, X.; Vepraskas, M. J.; Skaggs, R. W.; Lindbo, D. L. 2002. Adapting a Drainage Model to Simulate Water Table Levels in Coastal Plain Soils, Soil Science Society of America Journal 66: 1722–1731.

Heilweil, V. M.; Watt, D. E. 2011. Trench Infiltration for Managed Aquifer Recharge to Permeable Bedrock, Hydrological Processes 25(1): 141–151.

Jackson, J. I.; Boutle, R. 2008. Ecological Functions within a Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems, in Proc. of the 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage. 31 August – 5 September 2008, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK: 1‒10. Avail- able from Internet:

Kalantari, Z.; Folkeson, L. 2013. Road Drainage in Sweden: Current Practice and Suggestions for Adaptation to Climate Change, Journal of Infrastructure Systems 19(2): 147–156.

Khan, A. A.; Shah, S. S. M.; Gabriel, H. F. 2002. The Influence of Conceptual Flow Simulation Model Parameters on Model Solution, Water Resources Management 16: 51–69.

Kuang, X.; Jimmy, J. J.; Wan, L.; Wang, X; Mao, D. 2011. Air and Water Flows in a Vertical Sand Column, Water Resources Research 47(4): 1–12.

Mendez, A.; Sands, G. R.; Basin, B.; Jin, C. X.; Wotzka, J. P. 2004. Simulating the Impact of Drainage Design in a Cold Climate with ADAPT, Journal of the American Water Resources Association 40(2): 385–400.

Mishra, S. K.; Tyagi, J. V.; Singh, V. P. 2003. Comparison of Infiltration Models, Hydrological Processes 17: 2629–2652.

Moustafa, M. M. 2000. A Geostatistical Approach to Optimize the Determination of Saturated Hydraulic Permeability for Large-Scale Subsurface Drainage Design in Egypt, Agricultural Water Management 42(3): 291–312.

Oosterbaan, R. J. 2002. Drainage Research in Farmers’ Fields: Analysis of Data. Part of project “Liquid Gold” of the International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), The Netherlands: Wageningen. 1–12.

Ranieri, V.; Ying, G.; Sansalone, J. 2012. Drainage Modeling of Roadway Systems with Porous Friction Courses, Journal of Transportation Engineering 138(4): 395–405.

Rimidis, A.; Dierickx, W. 2004. Field Research on the Performance of Various Drainage Materials in Lithuania, Agricultural Water Management 68(2): 151–175.

Ritzema, H. P.; Oosterbaan, R. J.; Nijland, H. J. 1994. Determining the Saturated Hydraulic Permeability, in Drainage Principles and Applications, ed. by Ritzema, H. P., 2nd revised edition. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), The Netherlands: Wageningen. 1–37.

Rocwell, D. L. 2002. The Influence of Groundwater on Surface Flow Erosion Processes during a Rainstorm, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 27(5): 495–514.

Rokade, S.; Agarwal, P. L.; Shrivastava, R. 2012. Drainage and Flexible Pavement Performance, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) 4(04): 1308–1311.

Saara, A.; Saarenketo, T. 2006. Managing Drainage on Low Volume Roads. Executive summary. European Regional Development Fund. 37 p.

Salour, F.; Erlingasson, S. 2013. Investigation of a Pavement Structural Behaviour during Spring Thaw Using Falling Weight Deflectometer, Road Materials and Pavement Design 14(1): 141–158.

Sands, G. R.; Song, I.; Busman, L. M.; Hansen, B. 2008. The Effects of Subsurface Drainage Depth and Intensity on Nitrate Load in a Cold Cornbelt, Transactions of the ASABE 51(3): 937–946.

Sedergen, G. P. 1981. The Drainage of Drainage Envelopes and the Pavements of Airfields. Moscow: Transport. 280 p. (in Russian).

Singh, R.; Helmers, M. J.; Crumpton, W. G.; Lemke, D. W. 2007. Predicting Effects of Drainage Water Management in Iowa’s Subsurface Drained landscapes, Agricultural Water Management 92(3): 162–170. j.agwat.2007.05.012

Strock, J. S.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; King, K. W.; Delgado, J. A. 2010. Drainage Water Management for Water Quality Protection, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 65(6): 131–136.

Vasiliev, A. P.; Sidenko, V. M. 1990. Èkspluatacija avtomobil’nyh dorog i organizacija dorožnogo dviženija. Moskva:Transport. 301 s. ISBN 5277008772.

Zheng, Z.; Soh, B.; Huppert, H. E.; Stone, H. A. 2013. Fluid Drainage from the Edge of a Porous Reservoir, Journal of Fluid Mechanics 718: 558–568.

DOI: 10.3846/bjrbe.2015.29


1. Evaluation of frost blanket layer strength using different devices
Bertulienė, Lina Juknevičiūtė-Žilinskienė, Henrikas Sivilevičius, Alfredas Laurinavičius
Journal of the Croatian Association of Civil Engineers  vol: 71  issue: 2  first page: 95  year: 2019  
doi: 10.14256/JCE.2139.2017


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press Technika