Validation of Scenario Modelling for Bridge Loading

Eugene J. OBrien, Cathal Leahy, Bernard Enright, Colin C. Caprani

Abstract


Accurate estimates of characteristic bridge load effects are required for efficient design and assessment of bridges, and long-run traffic simulations are an effective method for estimating the effects. For multi-lane same-direction traffic, truck weights and locations on the bridge are correlated and this affects the calculated load effects. Scenario Modelling is a recently developed method, which uses weigh-in-motion data to simulate multi-lane same-direction traffic while maintaining location and weight correlations. It has been unclear however, whether the method may produce unrealistic driver behaviour when extrapolating beyond the weigh-in-motion measuring period. As weigh-in-motion databases with more than about a year of data are not available, a microsimulation traffic model, which can simulate driver behaviour, is used here to assess the accuracy of extrapolating traffic effects using Scenario Modelling. The microsimulation is used to generate an extended reference dataset against which the results of Scenario Modelling are compared. It is found that the characteristic load effects obtained using Scenario Modelling compare well with the reference dataset. As a result, for the first time researchers and practitioners can model two-lane same-direction traffic loading on bridges while being confident that the approach is generating accurate estimates of characteristic load effects as well as effectively reproducing the complex traffic correlations involved.


Keywords:

bridges; highway; loads; scenario modelling; traffic; trucks.

Full Text:

PDF

References


AASHTO. 2015. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. 7th edition.

Brockfeld, E.; Kühne, R. D.; Wagner, P. 2004. Calibration and Validation of Microscopic Traffic Flow Models, Transportation Research Record: 1876: 62–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/1876-07

Caprani, C. C. 2012. Calibration of a Congestion Load Model for Highway Bridges Using Traffic Microsimulation, Structural Engineering International 22(3): 342–348. http://dx.doi.org/10.2749/101686612X13363869853455

Caprani, C. C.; OBrien, E. J. 2010. The Use of Predictive Likelihood to Estimate the Distribution of Extreme Bridge Traffic Load Effect, Structural Safety 32(2): 138–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2009.09.001

Castillo, E. 1988. Extreme Value Theory in Engineering. Academic Press. 389 p.

Chen, C.; Li, L.; Hu, J.; Geng, C. 2010. Calibration of MITSIM and IDM Car-Following Model Based on NGSIM Trajectory Datasets, in International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety: 48–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icves.2010.5550943

Croce, P.; Salvatore, W. 2001. Stochastic Model for Multilane Traffic Effects on Bridges, Journal of Bridge Engineering 6(2): 136–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1084-0702(2001)6:2(136)

De Angelis, D.; Young, G. A. 1992. Smoothing the Bootstrap, International Statistical Review/Revue Internationale de Statistique 60(1): 45–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1403500

Dissanayake, P. B. R.; Karunananda, P. a. K. 2008. Reliability Index for Structural Health Monitoring of Aging Bridges, Structural Health Monitoring 7(2): 175–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1475921708090555

EN 1991-1-2:2002. Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures – Part 2: Traffic Loads on Bridges.

Enright, B.; OBrien, E. J.; Leahy, C. 2015. Identifying and Modelling Permit Trucks for Bridge Loading, Published Online ahead of Print in Proceedings of the ICE – Bridge Engineering. http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/bren.14.00031

Enright, B.; OBrien, E. J. 2013. Monte Carlo Simulation of Extreme Traffic Loading on Short and Medium Span Bridges, Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 9(12): 1267–1282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15732479.2012.688753

Enright, B.; Carey, C.; Caprani, C. C.; OBrien, E. J. 2012. The Effect of Lane Changing on Long-Span Highway Bridge Traffic Loading, in 6th International IABMAS Conference “Bridge Maintenance, Safety, Management, Resilience & Sustainability”. Ed. by Biondini, F.; Frangopol, D. M. 8–12 July, 2012, Stresa, Lake Maggiore, Italy: Taylor & Francis.

Hoogendoorn, S.; Hoogendoorn, R. 2010. Calibration of Microscopic Traffic-Flow Models Using Multiple Data Sources, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 368(1928): 4497–4517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2010.0189

Kesting, A.; Treiber, M.; Helbing, D. 2007. General Lane-Changing Model MOBIL for Car-Following Models, Transportation Research Record: 1999: 86–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/1999-10

Kulicki, J. M.; Prucz, Z.; Clancy, C. M.; Mertz, D.; Nowak, A. 2007. Updating the Calibration Report For AASHTO LRFD Code – NCHRP 20-7/186. Washington D.C.: Transport Research Board. 120 p.

Miao, T. J.; Chan, T. H. T. 2002. Bridge Live Load Models from WIM Data, Engineering Structures 24(8): 1071–1084. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0296(02)00034-2

Nowak, A. 1999. Calibration of LRFD Bridge Design Code – NCHRP Report 368. Washington D.C.: Transport Research Board. 222 p.

Nowak, A.; Szerszen, M. M. 1998. Bridge Load and Resistance Models, Engineering Structures 20(11): 985–990. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0296(97)00193-4

OBrien, E. J.; Enright, B. 2011. Modeling Same-Direction Two- Lane Traffic for Bridge Loading, Structural Safety 33(4): 296– 304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2011.04.004

O’Connor, A.; Jacob, B.; O’Brien, E.; Prat, M. 2001. Report of Current Studies Performed on Normal Load Model of EC1: Part 2. Traffic Loads on Bridges, Revue Française de Génie Civil 5(4): 411–433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12795119.2001.9692315

Punzo, V.; Simonelli, F. 2005. Analysis and Comparison of Microscopic Traffic Flow Models with Real Traffic Microscopic Data, Transportation Research Record 1934: 53–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/1934-06

Sparmann, U. 1979. The Importance of Lane-Changing on Motorways, Traffic Engineering and Control 20(6): 320–323.

Treiber, M.; Hennecke, A.; Helbing, D. 2000. Congested Traffic States in Empirical Observations and Microscopic Simulations, Physical Review E 62(2): 1805–1824. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.62.1805

Yousif, S.; Hunt, J. 1995. Modelling Lane Utilisation On British Dual-Carriageway Roads: Effects on Lane-Changing, Traffic Engineering & Control 36(12): 680–687.




DOI: 10.3846/bjrbe.2016.27

Cited-By

1. Revisited Live Load for Simple-Span Bridges
Olga Iatsko, Andrzej S. Nowak
Journal of Bridge Engineering  vol: 26  issue: 1  first page: 04020114  year: 2021  
doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)BE.1943-5592.0001647

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press Technika