Multi-Hazard Assessment of RC Bridges using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based Measurements

Orkan Özcan, Okan Özcan

Abstract


The structural performance of reinforced concrete bridges is crucial regarding the bridge safety. Monitoring the bridge performance under multihazard effects such as scour, and earthquake becomes even more important. Thus, the scour depth along the piers and piles of bridge substructures has to be measured and tracked consistently in order for reliable multi-hazard bridge behaviour predictions. A practical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle based scour measurement method was proposed to increase the measurement accuracy and reduce the implementation costs. This method has been used in shallow and clear-water riverbeds. The Boğaçayı Bridge was selected as the case study located at the Boğaçayı River in Antalya, Turkey, since it was exposed to stream and flood, induced scour in the previous years. In the study region, the amount of scour was determined with considerable accuracy, and the scour measurements were used for generating the Three-Dimensional Finite Element model of the bridge. The multi-hazard performance of the bridge was acquired by implementing nonlinear static analysis using pushover curves corresponding to various scour depths concentrated at some of the bridge piers. Therefore, a continuously updateable multi-hazard bridge assessment system was proposed, which was implemented in bridges under scour and earthquake effects, regarding Unmanned Aerial Vehicle based measurements.


Keywords:

bridge; earthquake; multi-hazard performance; scour monitoring; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

Full Text:

PDF

References


AASHTO LRFD (2014). AASHTO LRFD bridge design specifications. Transportation (Amst). American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Inc.: Washington, DC.

Akib, S., Fayyadh, M. M., & Othman, I. (2011). Structural behaviour of a skewed integral bridge affected by different parameters. Balt J Road Bridge Eng, 6(2), 107-114. https://doi.org/10.3846/bjrbe.2011.15

Alipour, A., & Shafei, B. (2012). Performance assessment of highway bridges under earthquake and scour effects. In Proceedings of the 15th world conference on earthquake engineering (pp. 24-28).

Applied Technology Council. (1996). Seismic evaluation and retrofit of concrete buildings. 2. Appendices. ATC.

Avşar, Ö., Atak, B., & Caner, A. (2017). In-depth investigation of seismic vulnerability of an aging river bridge exposed to scour. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 31(5), 04017044. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0001036

Bao, T., Swartz, R. A., Vitton, S., Sun, Y., Zhang, C., & Liu, Z. (2017). Critical insights for advanced bridge scour detection using the natural frequency. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 386, 116-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2016.06.039

Boujia, N., Schmidt, F., Siegert, D., Van Bang, D. P., & Chevalier, C. (2017). Modelling of a bridge pier subjected to scour. Procedia engineering, 199, 2925-2930. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.09.343

Burrell, J., Gurrola, H., & Mickus, K. (2008). Frequency domain electromagnetic and ground penetrating radar investigation of ephemeral streams: case study near the Southern High Plains, Texas. Environmental Geology, 55(6), 1169. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-007-1063-5

Castillo, C., Pérez, R., James, M. R., Quinton, J. N., Taguas, E. V., & Gómez, J. A. (2012). Comparing the accuracy of several field methods for measuring gully erosion. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 76(4), 1319-1332. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2011.0390

Chapuis, M., Dufour, S., Provansal, M., Couvert, B., & De Linares, M. (2015). Coupling channel evolution monitoring and RFID tracking in a large, wandering, gravel-bed river: Insights into sediment routing on geomorphic continuity through a riffle–pool sequence. Geomorphology, 231, 258-269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.12.013

Council B. S. S. (2000). Prestandard and commentary for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings. Report FEMA-356, Washington, DC.

Dudunake, T. J., Huizinga, R. J., & Fosness, R. L. (2017). Bridge scour countermeasure assessments at select bridges in the United States, 2014–16 (No. 2017-1048). US Geological Survey. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20171048

Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2005). Improvement of nonlinear static seismic analysis procedures. FEMA 440, prepared by Applied Technology Council (ATC-55 Project).

Fisher, M., Chowdhury, M. N., Khan, A. A., & Atamturktur, S. (2013). An evaluation of scour measurement devices. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 33, 55-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2013.05.001

Flener, C. (2013). Calibrating Deep Water Radiance in Shallow Water: Adapting Optical Bathymetry Modeling to Shallow River Environments, Boreal Environment Research 18: 488-501.

Ganesh Prasad, G., & Banerjee, S. (2013). The impact of flood-induced scour on seismic fragility characteristics of bridges. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 17(6), 803-828. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2013.771593

Hackl, J., Adey, B. T., Woźniak, M., & Schümperlin, O. (2017). Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry to Obtain Topographical Information to Improve Bridge Risk Assessment. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 24(1), 04017041. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000393

Hung, C. C., & Yau, W. G. (2014). Behavior of scoured bridge piers subjected to flood-induced loads. Engineering Structures, 80, 241-250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.09.009

Hung, C. C., & Yau, W. G. (2017). Vulnerability evaluation of scoured bridges under floods. Engineering Structures, 132, 288-299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2016.11.044

James, M. R., & Robson, S. (2012). Straightforward reconstruction of 3D surfaces and topography with a camera: Accuracy and geoscience application. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 117(F3). https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JF002289

Jaud, M., Grasso, F., Le Dantec, N., Verney, R., Delacourt, C., Ammann, J., ... & Grandjean, P. (2016). Potential of UAVs for monitoring mudflat morphodynamics (application to the seine estuary, France). ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 5(4), 50. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5040050

Javernick, L., Brasington, J., & Caruso, B. (2014). Modeling the topography of shallow braided rivers using Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry. Geomorphology, 213, 166-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.01.006

Kızılduman, H. S., Yanmaz, A. M., & Caner, A. (2017). Stability of bridge piers subjected to a probable flood event followed by a probable seismic event. Journal of performance of constructed facilities, 32(1), 04017120. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0001123

Klinga, J. V., & Alipour, A. (2015). Assessment of structural integrity of bridges under extreme scour conditions. Engineering Structures, 82, 55-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.07.021

Lin, C., Bennett, C., Han, J., & Parsons, R. L. (2012). Integrated analysis of the performance of pile-supported bridges under scoured conditions. Engineering structures, 36, 27-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2011.11.015

McVay, M. C., & Niraula, L. (2004). Development of PY curves for large diameter piles/drilled shafts in limestone for FBPIER (No. Final Report,).

Melville, B. W., & Coleman, S. E. (2000). Bridge scour. Water Resources Publication.

Niraula, L. D. (2004). Development of Modified Tz Curves for Large Diameter Piles/ drilled Shafts in Limestone for Fb-pier (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida).

Pandey, M., Sharma, P. K., Ahmad, Z., & Karna, N. (2018). Maximum scour depth around bridge pier in gravel bed streams. Natural Hazards, 91(2), 819-836. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-017-3157-z

Prendergast, L. J., Hester, D., Gavin, K., & O’sullivan, J. J. (2013). An investigation of the changes in the natural frequency of a pile affected by scour. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 332(25), 6685-6702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2013.08.020

Reese, L. C., Cox, W. R., & Koop, F. D. (1974). Analysis of laterally loaded piles in sand. Offshore Technology in Civil Engineering Hall of Fame Papers from the Early Years, 95-105.

Song, S. T., Wang, C. Y., & Huang, W. H. (2015). Earthquake damage potential and critical scour depth of bridges exposed to flood and seismic hazards under lateral seismic loads. Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 14(4), 579-594. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11803-015-0047-9

Tamminga, A. D., Eaton, B. C., & Hugenholtz, C. H. (2015). UAS‐based remote sensing of fluvial change following an extreme flood event. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 40(11), 1464-1476. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3728

Tanasić, N., & Hajdin, R. (2018). Management of bridges with shallow foundations exposed to local scour. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 14(4), 468-476. https://doi.org/10.1080/15732479.2017.1406960

Topczewski, Ł., Cieśla, J., Mikołajewski, P., Adamski, P., & Markowski, Z. (2016). Monitoring of Scour Around Bridge Piers and Abutments. Transportation Research Procedia, 14, 3963-3971. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.493

Turkish Earthquake Code (TEC) (2007). Specifications for buildings to be built in seismic areas. Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, Ankara (in Turkish).

Wang, S. T., & Reese, L. C. (1993). COM624P: laterally loaded pile analysis program for the microcomputer, Version 2.0. US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Office of Technology Applications.

Zheng, S., Xu, Y. J., Cheng, H., Wang, B., & Lu, X. (2018). Assessment of bridge scour in the lower, middle, and upper Yangtze River estuary with riverbed sonar profiling techniques. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 190(1), 15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6393-5




DOI: 10.7250/bjrbe.2018-13.412

Cited-By

1. Multi-temporal UAV based repeat monitoring of rivers sensitive to flood
Orkan Özcan, Okan Özcan
Journal of Maps  first page: 1  year: 2020  
doi: 10.1080/17445647.2020.1820387

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Orkan Özcan, Okan Özcan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.