Simulation-Based Model for Optimizing Highways Resurfacing Operations


  • Mohamed Marzouk Dept of Structural Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt
  • Marwa Fouad Dept of Structural Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt



planning, computer simulation, genetic algorithms, highways resurfacing, road users’ cost


Work zone length in the highways’ resurfacing is an important factor that should be determined before the start of work. This factor influences the time and cost of the project. This paper presents a framework that is dedicated for determining the optimum length of highway resurfacing work zone. The framework estimates the total duration and total cost of resurfacing by conducting simulation analysis to model the resurfacing operations of highways to account associated uncertainties. The framework analyzes resurfacing of highways and divides them into zones. The lengths of these zones depend on minimum total cost and minimum duration. The framework consists of two modules; simulation and optimization. Simulation module is responsible for estimating total duration for each work zone. Whereas, optimization module optimizes the total cost including direct resurfacing operation, indirect/overhead costs, and the impact of work on road users’ costs. The latter costs include queuing delay cost, moving delay cost, accident cost. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the practical use of the framework.


Cassidy, M. J.; Bertini, R. L. 1999. Some Traffic Features at Freeway Bottlenecks, Transportation Research Part B-Methodological 33(1): 25–42.

Chen, C.-H.; Schonfeld, P.; Paracha, J. 2005. Work Zone Optimization for Two-Lane Highway Resurfacing Projects with an Alternate Route, Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1911: 51–66.

Chien, S.; Schonfeld, P. 2001. Optimal Work Zone Lengths for Four-Lane Highways, Journal Transportation Engineering 127(2): 124–131.

Chien, S.; Tang, Y.; Schonfeld, P. 2002. Optimizing Work Zones for Two-Lane Highway Maintenance Projects, Journal Transportation Engineering 128(2): 145–155.

Coley, D. A. 1999. An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms for Scientists and Engineers. World Scientific. ISBN 9810236026. 244 p.

Deb, K. 2001. Multi‒Objective Optimization Using Evolutionary Algorithms. 1st edition. Wiley, New York. ISBN 047187339X. 518 p.

Elbeltagi, E.; Hegazy, T.; Grierson, D. 2005. Comparison among Five Evolutionary-Based Optimization Algorithms, Journal of Advanced Engineering Informatics 19(1): 43–53.

Goldberg, D. E. 1989. Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning. 1st edition. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass. ISBN 0201157675. 432 p.

Hajdin, R.; Lindenmann, H. P. 2007. Algorithm for the Planning of Optimum Highway Work Zones, Journal of Infrastructure Systems ASCE 13(3): 202–214.

Halpin, D. W.; Riggs, L. S. 1992. Planning and Analysis of Construction Operations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY. ISBN 047155510X. 381 p.

Holland, J. H. 1992. Genetic Algorithms, Scientific American: 66–72.

Jiang, Y.; Chen, H.; Li, S. 2009. Computation of User Costs at Freeway Work Zones Using Weigh-in-Motion Traffic Data, International Journal of Construction Education and Research 5(3): 197–219.

Lee, H. Y. 2009. Optimizing Schedule for Improving the Traffic Impact of Work Zone on Roads, Automation in Construction 18(8):

Lukas, K.; Borrmann, A. 2011. Minimizing the Traffic Impact Caused by Infrastructure Maintenance Using and Colony Optimization, in Proc. of the 28th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC 2011). Seoul, Korea.

Martinez, J. C. 1996. Stroboscope State and Resource Based Simulation of Construction Processes. PhD Thesis. University of Michigan, USA.

Meng, Q.; Weng, J. 2013. Optimal Subwork Zone Length and Project Start Time for Short-Term Daytime Work Zones from the Contractor’s Perspective, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies 29: 72–83.

Meng, Q.; Weng, J. 2010. Optimal Subwork Zone Operational Strategy for Short-Term Work Zone Projects in Four-Lane Two-Way Freeways, Journal of Advanced Transportation 47(2): 151–169.

Schonfeld, P.; Chien, S. 1999. Optimal Work Zone Lengths for Two-Lane Highways, Journal of Transportation Engineering, ASCE 125(1): 21–29.

Wang, Y.; Cheu, R. L.; Fwa, T. F. 2002. Highway Maintenance Scheduling Using Genetic Algorithm with Microscopic Traffic Simulation, in Proc. of the 81st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, in CD-ROM, paper No. 02–2174.

Walls, J.; Smith, M. R. 1998. Life Cycle Cost Analysis in Pavement Design – in Search of Better Investment Decisions. Technical Report No. FHWA-SA-98-079, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

Weng, J.; Meng, Q. 2013. Estimating Capacity and Traffic Delay in Work Zones: An Overview, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies 35: 34–45.

Yang, N.; Schonfeld, P.; Kang, M. W. 2009. A Hybrid Methodology for Freeway Work-Zone Optimization with Time Constraints, Public Works Management Policy 13(3): 253–264.




How to Cite

Marzouk, M., & Fouad, M. (2014). Simulation-Based Model for Optimizing Highways Resurfacing Operations. The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering, 9(1), 58-65.