Developing A New Model for Assessment of Heavy Vehicle-Pedestrian Collisions




heavy vehicles, length of throw, length of pedestrian, neural network, road friction


The treatment and analysis of accidents involving heavy transport vehicles and pedestrians include the identification and treatment of a certain number of factors that may differ from the cases of passenger vehicle-pedestrian accidents. The aim of this paper is to develop a new model with better performance for speed estimation and reconstruction of accidents involving heavy vehicles and pedestrians. In a large number of cases during the research, it was observed that the experts used the same models for passenger vehicles as for transport vehicles. Likewise, a number of factors that have an impact on heavy vehicle accidents with pedestrians are not included as factors that have an impact on other accidents. The newly developed model, which has better performance than other models, can help experts in the case of analysis, speed determination, and reconstruction of accidents involving heavy vehicles and pedestrians. The model describes more than 94% of the most influential factors in the model (R2 = 0.945). This model will provide a novel way to examine crashes involving heavy vehicles and pedestrians, generating highly precise results for speed calculation which can be used to recreate the technical aspects of the accident. Additionally, it will help specialists in the field when preparing their expert opinion, specifically when heavy vehicles and pedestrians are involved, by providing a model which is different from the standard approach and yields more reliable outcomes.


Albayrak, A. S. (2008). Değişen varyans durumunda en küçük kareler tekniğinin alternatifi ağırlıklı regresyon analizi ve bir uygulama. Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 10(2), 111–134.

Geca, A. (2011). Analiza dhe parandalimi i aksidenteve në komunikacionin rrugor. Pjesa II, Universiteti i Prishtines, Prishtine.

Goel, R. (2021). A new model to estimate pedestrian deaths from speed-related interventions. Traffic Injury Prevention, 22(4), 330–335.

Glass, G. V., Peckham, P. D., & Sanders, J. R. (1972). Consequences of failure to meet assumptions underlying the fixed effects analyses of variance and covariance. Review of Educational Research, 42(3), 237–288.

Happer, A., Araszewski, M., Toor, A., Overgaard, R., & Johal, R. (2000). Comprehensive analysis method for vehicle/pedestrian collisions. SAE Transactions, 1288–1315.

Hoxha, G., Shala, A., Likaj, R., & Bajrami, XH. (2018). Mathematical model for velocity calculation of three types of vehicles in the case of pedestrian crash. Strojnícky časopis – Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 68(3), 95–110.

Hoxha, G., Fandaj, A., & Bajrami, X. (2023). Quality of automatic traffic volume counting by cameras and impact on the qualitative indicators of traffic. Infrastructures, 8(3), Article 44.

Hoxha, G., Shala, A., & Likaj, R. (2017). Vehicle speed determination in case of road accident by software method and comparing of results with the mathematical model. Strojnícky časopis – Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 67(2), 51–60.

Islam, M. (2023). An exploratory analysis of the effects of speed limits on pedestrian injury severities in vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Journal of Transport & Health, 28, Article 101561.

Kashani, A. T., Jafari, M., & Bondarabadi, M. A. (2021). A new approach in analyzing the accident severity of pedestrian crashes using structural equation modeling. Journal of Injury and Violence Research, 13(1), Article 23.

Martínez, F., Páez, J., Furones, A., & Sánchez, S. (2016). Pedestrian-vehicle accidents reconstruction with PC-Crash®: sensibility analysis of factors variation. Transportation Research Procedia, 18, 115–121.

Mohammed, A. A., Ambak, K., Mosa, A. M., & Syamsunur, D. (2019). A review of the traffic accidents and related practices worldwide. The Open Transportation Journal, 13, 65–83.

Nogayeva, S., Gooch, J., & Frascione, N. (2021). The forensic investigation of vehicle–pedestrian collisions: A review. Science & Justice, 61(2), 112–118.

Richardson, S., Josevski, N., Sandvik, A., Pok, T., Orton, T. L., Winter, B., & Wang, X. (2015). Pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots using PC-Crash (SAE Technical Paper, 01-1418).

Saulić, N., Papić, Z., & Ovcin, Z. (2020). Pedestrian throw distance prediction from vehicle damage intensity. Promet – Traffic & Transportation, 32(3), 371–382.

Shen, J., & Jin, X. L. (2007). Reconstruction of pedestrian-vehicle accident using sequential linear programming optimizer. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 12(6), 653–661.

Sheykhfard, A., Haghighi, F., Papadimitriou, E., & Van Gelder, P. (2021). Review and assessment of different perspectives of vehicle-pedestrian conflicts and crashes: Passive and active analysis approaches. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition), 8(5), 681–702.

Talaia, P., Toma, M., Hajžman, M., Hynčík, L., & Njilie, F. (2009). A pedestrian model for accident simulation from the crash until full stop. ISB2009, XXII Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics, Cape Town, South Africa.

Wang, J., Li, Z., Zou, D., & Chen, Y. (2022). Reconstruction of a real-world car-to-pedestrian collision using geomatics techniques and numerical simulations. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 91, Article 102433.

Zang, G., Azouigui, S., Saudrais, S., Peyricot, O., & Hébert, M. (2021). Quantitative study of vehicle-pedestrian interactions: Towards pedestrian-adapted lighting communication functions for autonomous vehicles. Electronic Imaging, 2021(17), 172-1–172-7.

Zhang, T., Liu, Y., Rao, Y., Li, X., & Zhao, Q. (2020). Optimal design of building environment with hybrid genetic algorithm, artificial neural network, multivariate regression analysis and fuzzy logic controller. Building and Environment, 175, Article 106810.

Zhu, S. (2022). Analyse vehicle-pedestrian crash severity at intersection with data mining techniques. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 27(5), 1374–1382.




How to Cite

Hoxha, G., Bixhaku, M., & Duraku, R. (2023). Developing A New Model for Assessment of Heavy Vehicle-Pedestrian Collisions. The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering, 18(3), 102-123.